The acid and base compounds of animal feed diets are mainly based on chlorine anions, sulfur, and potassium and sodium cations. Differences between anionic and cationic substances in foods  affect the body’s homeostasis balance, calcium status during calving and mineral application (NRC, 2001; Goff and Horst, 1997; Block, 1994) and its effect on Experiments have also been performed on the performance of lactating cows (Beede, 2005; Hu and MurpHy, 2004). Negative equilibrium between anion and feed cations in near-calving cows  prevents milk fever  and its positive balance in Increasing livestock milk is effective.
Anions are negatively charged elements, and cations are positively charged elements, and if the equilibrium between the anion and the cation is positive, the environment is alkaline, and if this balance is negative, the environment becomes acidic. The presence of an acidic environment in the rumen increases the storage of calcium in the bones and prevents milk fever, in which case it is best to use a diet that creates an acidic environment in the rumen. This prevents inflammation of the wound and balances metabolic reactions. Since green plants contain high amounts of potassium, they should be limited in livestock nutrition.
Effects of DCAD on blood pH
Blood pH is maintained in a very small range (cow blood pH is 7.31 to 7.35). PHs outside this range usually endanger life. Too acidic or too much play changes the shape of cellular proteins, especially those at the cell surface. These play or acidic conditions destroy the cell membrane, and a flow of ions and extracellular fluids occurs into the cell, causing the cell to swell and eventually die. Low-intensity pH changes can affect the activity of cellular enzymes and the structure of hormonal receptors, which in turn can affect animal production or disease resistance.
Monitoring urine pH after feeding an acidic diet:
Diets with a positive DCAD are called cationic (alkalogenic) diets, and diets with a negative DCAD are called anionic (acidogenic) diets.
The most straightforward and useful way to stabilize anions and cations in the blood is to measure urine pH. The average pH of urine in a group of preterm dry cows should be between 5.5 and 6.5, provided that the anions are properly fed and the diet is properly adjusted and given to the animal. How to produce mild acidosis by anionic salts is that when the anions are absorbed into the blood, the ionic concentration of ion + H is positively increased to neutralize the ionic charge, and metabolic acidosis occurs.
Important Note: Dry cows fed on anionic salts have increased calcium requirements because a large amount of calcium is lost through urine and the animal must consume 100 to 150 grams of calcium per day, if in moderation. Normally, a 630 kg pregnant cow needs 40 grams of calcium per day.
Investigate the formulas for calculating DCAD in milligrams per kilogram of diet (mEq / kg):
In the feeding of dairy cows, the formulation of their diet is of great importance. One of the important things in preparing a food formula is the balance between the anion and the food cation. This factor, which is calculated in terms of millionths of a mile, has different formulas for it:
(Na + K) – (Cl + S)
(Na + K) – Cl
(Na + K + Ca + Mg) – (Cl + S + P)
(Na + K + 0.38Ca + 0.3Mg) – (Cl + 0.65 + 0.5P)
Formula One has a broader application and is now more suitable for predicting the effect of diet on acid and base blood status.
Note: Depending on the amount of potassium in the diet (which is highly variable), adding anions to the diet may increase the level of DCAD to a level that is low enough to reduce hypocalcemia. Many forage-based diets have a DCAD of about 150+ to +350 mA / kg per kilogram of diet. It is commonly felt that the DCAD should be reduced to zero or less to prevent milk fever from occurring. Anionic salts play a role in reducing blood pH and mild metabolic acidosis so that blood calcium levels do not change much and the animal does not develop hypocalcemia and, after a while, milk fever. Also, the use of anionic salts increases milk production and increases reproductive efficiency.
In the most successful experiments, the DCAD was between 100 and 200 μm of acacia per kilogram of diet. Laboratory research shows that between 50 and 100 milliliters of acacia DCAD per kilogram of diet is desirable to prevent milk fever.
Recommended amount of DCAD in dairy cows (NRC, 2001):
1- Breastfeeding cow (20+ to 40+ ml of hot water per kilogram of diet).
2- Dry cows (10 to 15 mg of warm valance per kilogram of diet).
3- Ordinary cows (30 to 43 mg of warm valance per kilogram of diet).
4 – fattening calf (30 mg of warm valance per kilogram of diet).
Acidic diets (DCAD more negatively) promote MOBILITY and further release calcium from the bones, increase vitamin D metabolites, and parathyroid hormone activity, are more appropriate (especially in dry cows).
Among the common anionic salts, magnesium sulfate is currently the most edible and calcium chloride the most malnourished. Sulfates appear to be superior to chlorides in good food, however, the weak ability of acids to acidify the diet by sulfates severely limits their use. Also, great care is needed to avoid exceeding the maximum tolerable levels of sulfur in the diet.
DCAD = (Na + + K +) – (Cl- + S-)
The above formula has a wider application